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Glossary

Chemical Terms
Kémiai anyag

A kémiai elemekre, vegyületekre, valamint a vegyületek és elemek keverékeire általában használt megnevezés.

Vegyi anyag

Ez a kifejezés használatos az alapvető munkahelyi biztonsági és egészségvédelmi jogszabályokban:
A munkatevy chemical element or compound, on its vagy mestershemical element or compound, on its own or admix illetve szennyezcal element or compound, on its own o vagy keverennyezcal element or compound, on its own or admixed, a atty keverennyezcal esa szándékos-e, illetve hogy forgalomba hozt kev.

Vegyi árucikk

olyan tárgy, amely az előállítás során a funkcióját a kémiai összetételnél nagyobb mértékben meghatározó különleges formát, felületet, vagy alakot kap.
Pl. gumiabroncsok, műanyag bútorok, elektronikai eszközök, szintetikus szálak felhasználásával készült textiltermékek, kábelek

Vegyipari termék

Egy vagy több vegyi anyagból vagy vegyületből álló termék. Funkcióját nagymértékben kémiai összetétele határozza meg.
Pl. ragasztók, festékek, tinták, fertőtlenítőszerek, biocid termékek, lágyítószerek, szilikon, tűzijátékok, kenőolajok stb.

Vegyület

Két vagy több kémiai elemből álló kémiai vegyület.

Veszélyes anyag

A veszélyes anyagok osztályozása a CLP-irányelvben meghatározott kategóriákon alapul. E kategóriák magukban foglalják a fizikai veszélyeket (robbanóanyagok, tűzveszélyes anyagok, instabil anyagok stb.), az egészségi veszélyeket (az egészségre gyakorolt rövid vagy hosszú távú káros hatások valamennyi szempontja) és a környezeti veszélyeket (vízi környezet stb.).

Por

Valamely anyag vagy keverék gázban (rendszerint levegőben) lebegő szilárd részecskéi.

Füstök

A füst kifejezés különösen a levegőben lebegő szilárd finomrészecskékre vonatkozik, amelyek gyakran megolvasztott anyagokból jönnek létre elpárologtatás útján (pl. hegesztési vagy gumifüstök).

Gáz

olyan anyag, amely:
i. 50 oC-os hőmérsékleten 300 kPa-nál nagyobb (abszolút) gőznyomással rendelkezik; vagy
ii. 20 oC-os hőmérsékleten 101,3 kPa normál nyomás mellett teljesen gáz halmazállapotú.

Generated air contaminants - see: Generated substances
Generated substances - generated air contaminants

Substances and air contaminants may be generated from process at work places, e.g. combustion processes where fumes, exhausts and smoke is emitted and, grinding and cutting processes emitting dust. These generated substances and air contaminants may be dangerous.

Hazardous substance - see ‘Dangerous substance’

A substance which fulfils the criteria relating to physical hazards, health hazards or environmental hazards, laid down in Parts 2 to 5 of Annex I of the CLP Regulation, and classified in relation to the respective hazard classes provided for in that Annex.

The classification of dangerous substances is based on categories defined in the CLP Directive. These categories include physical hazards (explosive, flammable, instable etc.) health hazards (all aspects of short and long term harm to health) and environmental hazards (aquatic
environment etc.) 
Often hazardous substances and dangerous substances are used like synonyms. There is no clear distinction, language preferences play a role.

Liquid
olyan anyag vagy keverék, amely:
i. 50 ºC-os hőmérsékleten legfeljebb 300 kPa (3 bar) gőznyomással rendelkezik;
ii. 20 ºC-os hőmérsékleten 101,3 kPa normál nyomás mellett nem teljesen gáz halmazállapotú; és
iii. olvadáspontja vagy kezdeti olvadáspontja 101,3 kPa normál nyomás mellett legfeljebb 20 ºC
Mixture

‘Mixture’ means a mixture or solution composed of two or more substances.

Folyamatok során keletkező szennyező anyagok:

A folyamatok során keletkező szennyező anyagok létrejöhetnek bármilyen típusú, munkahelyi expozícióhoz vezető folyamatból származó kibocsátásként, pl. égési folyamatokból, olyan folyamatokból, amelyek fizikai vagy kémiai úton lebontják vagy másképpen módosítják a kiindulási anyagot.

Szilárd anyag

olyan anyag vagy keverék, amely nem tartozik sem a folyadék, sem a gáz fogalommeghatározása alá;
A szilárd egy halmazállapot. Jellemzője a szerkezeti merevség és az alak- vagy térfogatváltozással szembeni ellenálló képesség

Anyag

Olyan természetes állapotban előforduló vagy gyártási folyamatból származó kémiai elem és vegyületei, amely az anyag stabilitásának megőrzéséhez szükséges adalékanyagot és az alkalmazott folyamatból származó szennyező anyagot is tartalmazhat, de nem tartalmaz olyan
oldószert, amely az anyag stabilitásának befolyásolása vagy összetételének megváltoztatása nélkül elkülöníthető;

Health and Safety
Carcinogen

Carcinogen means a substance or a mixture of substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence.

Robbanóanyag

Robbanóképes anyag vagy keverék: olyan szilárd vagy folyékony anyag, vagy anyagok keveréke, amely önmagában is képes kémiai reakció révén gázt fejleszteni olyan hőmérsékleten és nyomáson, továbbá olyan sebességgel, hogy környezetében ezzel kárt okoz. A pirotechnikai anyagok akkor is ide tartoznak, ha nem fejlesztenek gázt.

Exposure

Exposure describes that a substance is present in the environment of a worker and can be either inhaled or taken up by contact with the skin (also eyes, ears) or through ingestion. 

Contact of an organism with a chemical, radiological, or physical agent. Exposure is quantified as the amount of the agent available at the exchange boundaries of the organism (e.g. skin, lungs, gut) and available for absorption.

Flammable

The CLP differentiates between flammable gases, aerosols liquids and solids and applies different criteria. A simplified definition is that all substances that can ignite and burn or support ignition and burning of other materials are classified as flammable.

Hazard

A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm. Hazards can affect people, property, processes; they can cause accidents and ill-heath, loss of output, damage to machinery, etc. 

Ingestion

The taking of food, drugs, liquids, or other substances into the body by mouth. 

Inhalation

The drawing of air into the airways and lungs

Irritants, Skin

Skin irritation means the production of reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.

Mutagen

A mutation means a permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell. The term ‘mutation’ applies both to heritable genetic changes that may be manifested at the phenotypic level and to the underlying DNA modifications when known (including specific base pair changes and chromosomal translocations).

Reproductive toxicity

Reproductive toxicity includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.

Risk

Occupational risk refers to the likelihood and the severity of an injury or an illness occurring as a result of exposure to a hazard. 

Sensitisers

Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance.

Skin sensitiser means a substance that will lead to an allergic response following skin contact

Sensitising

Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance.

Skin sensitiser means a substance that will lead to an allergic response following skin contact

Toxic (acute)

From a legal point of view a chemical (substance, mixture) is acutely toxic if it fulfils these CLP criteria:
Acute toxicity means those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance or a mixture, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours.

CLP differentiates between oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity.

Toxic (others)

Exposure to dangerous substances can lead to organ specific damages. The CLP differentiates between organ specific damages due to a single exposure or to repeated exposures.

Legislation
CAD

see: Chemical Agents Directive

Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive

Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive, CMD) 
of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work

Chemical Agents Directive

Directive 98/24/EC (the Chemical Agents Directive, CAD)
of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

Classification, labelling and packaging plus the abbr. CLP

Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation)
of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006

CLP

see : Classification, labelling and packaging

CMD

see Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive

GHS

see: Globally Harmonised System 

Globally Harmonised System

About the GHS

Occupational Exposure Limit

Directive 2009/161/EU - indicative occupational exposure limit values

OEL

see: Occupational Exposure Limit 

REACH

see:  Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH Regulation)
of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency

Safety Data Sheet

Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - REACH

SDS

see: Safety Data Sheet

Measures and Procedures
Control Measures – see: Measures

All measures that aim at the reduction of the generation of dangerous substances and the exposure risk of exposure.

Hazard pictograms

Hazard pictogram means a graphical composition that includes a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern or colour that is intended to convey specific information on the hazard concerned;

Hazard statement

Hazard statement means a phrase assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazards of a hazardous substance or mixture, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard;

Measurement of air contaminants

Measurement of the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace. Measurements may be used for measuring workers´ exposure or to study the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace, e.g. leakages, identification of sources emitting air contaminants and evaluation of the effectiveness of local exhausts as a basis for decisions about what measures should be taken. Depending on which substance is to be measured, different kinds of measuring equipment are available. 

Measurement of exposure

Technical measuring of the exposure of workers to dangerous substances by using substance/substance group specific measuring methods and instruments. Mostly applied is the measuring of airborne concentrations at work places – permanent or case to case, - and of dangerous substances or their metabolites in biological substances (e.g. blood or urine) of the exposed worker(s)

Measures - Control Measures

All measures that aim at increasing safety and health. Measures may either reduce the generation of dangerous substances or reduce the risk of exposure. 

Organisational measures

All measures aiming at the reduction of exposures to dangerous substances by organisational means, (e.g. reduction of the number workers in exposed areas)

Personal Protective Equipment plus the abbreviation PPE

PPE means:

(a) equipment designed and manufactured to be worn or held by a person for protection against one or more risks to that person's health or safety;

(b) interchangeable components for equipment referred to in point (a) which are essential for its protective function;

(c) connexion systems for equipment referred to in point (a) that are not held or worn by a person, that are designed to connect that equipment to an external device or to a reliable anchorage point, that are not designed to be permanently fixed and that do not require fastening works before use;

Risk Assessment

The aim of occupational risk assessment is to protect workers’ health and safety. Risk assessment includes identifying risks, evaluating how severe the risk is and deciding if there is a need to take action to reduce the risk.
Under health and safety laws, all employers must carry out regular risk assessment.

Safety data sheets (SDS)

SDS provide information about the properties of a chemical product, its hazards, and instructions for handling, disposal and transport, first-aid, fire-fighting and safety measures to reduce exposure. The information in SDS is needed to understand the risks and know how to handle the chemical product safely.

Substitution

Replacement of a dangerous substance or a chemical product or a process generating dangerous substances by less dangerous ones.

Technical Measures

All measures aiming at the reduction of exposures to
dangerous substances by using technical equipment